24 April 2024

Angular Contact Bearing | Advantages | Uses

In angular contact bearing, the groove in inner and outer race are so shaped that the line of reaction at the contact between the balls and races makes an angle with the axis of the bearing. There are two parts to this reaction: axial and radial. Therefor the angular contact bearing are often used in pair, either side by side or at the opposite ends of the shaft, in order to take the thrust load in both direction. These bearing are assembled with a specific magnitude or preload. Let us check more details about angular contact bearing in this article. 

Angular Contact Bearing

Angular Contact Bearing

Following are the Advantages of  Angular Contact Bearing 

  • Angular Contact Bearing can take both radial and thrust load.
  • In Angular Contact Bearing, one side of groove in the outer race is cut away to permit the insertion of large number of balls than that of deep groove ball bearing. This permit to bearing to carry relatively large axial and radial load. Therefore the load carrying capacity of angular contact bearing is more than that of deep groove ball bearing.

Following are the Disadvantages of  Angular Contact Bearing 

  • Two bearing are required to take thrust load in both directions.
  • It is necessary to install the angular contact bearing without any axial play.
  • First preloading is necessary for the angular contact bearing.

Application are Angular Contact Bearing used in

It is used in variety of application. This bearing are use in high speed, high precision application for:
  • Agriculture
  • Chemical
  • General industry
  • Utilities

18 April 2024

Cylindrical Roller Bearing | Advantages | Uses

The fundamental design of cylindrical roller bearing consists of cylindrical rollers in linear contact with the raceways. The line contact of a roller bearing is used in place of the point contact of a ball bearing when the maximum load carrying capacity in a given space is needed. The cage guides and positions the compared short rollers in a cylindrical roller bearing. This bearing are suitable for high speed rotation due to the low friction between the ring ribs and rollers. 

Cylindrical Roller Bearing

Cylindrical Roller Bearing

Following  are the Advantages of Cylindrical Roller Bearing

  • Due to line contact between rollers and races, the radial load carrying capacity of the cylindrical roller bearing is very high compared to ball bearing.
  • Compared to ball bearings, cylindrical roller bearings are more rigid.
  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing are easy to install, slim and save space and weight.
  • In high speed applications, there is minimal frictional loss and a low coefficient of friction. Cylindrical Roller Bearing faster speeds than other types of roller bearing.
  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing comes in several sizes and material, and they have straight outside and inside diameters.

Following are the Disadvantages of Cylindrical Roller Bearing

  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing cannot take thrust load.
  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing is not self aligning.
  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing cannot tolerate misalignment. Precise alignment between the shaft's axis and the housing's bore is required.
  • Cylindrical Roller Bearing generates more noise.

Application are Cylindrical Roller Bearing used in:

It is used in variety of applications. Following are the application of Cylindrical Roller Bearing:
  • Mining
  • Machine tool
  • Power Transmission
  • Power Generation

17 April 2024

Deep Groove Ball Bearing Advantages and Disadvantages

The most frequently used bearing is the deep ball bearing. It is found in almost all kinds of product in general mechanical engineering. In this type of bearing, the radius if the ball is slightly less than the radii if curvature of the grooves in the races. Kinematic ally, this gives a point contact between the balls and the races. As a result, there will be no sleeping and the balls and races are rolls freely. 

The Advantages of Deep Groove Ball Bearing are as follows:

  1. Due to relatively large size of the balls, deep ball bearing has high load carrying capacity.
  2. A deep groove ball bearing can withstand axial and radial loads.
    Because of point contact, deep groove ball bearings produce less noise.
  3. Deep groove ball bearing  are available with bore diameter from a few millimeters to 400 millimeters.
  4. This bearing experiences less frictional loss and subsequent temperature rise because of the point contact between the balls and races. The maximum speed of shaft is determined by the temperature rise of the bearing. Thus, Deep groove ball bearings are used for high speed applications. 

The Disadvantages of Deep Groove Ball Bearing  are as follows:

  1. Deep groove ball bearing  is not self aligning. It is necessary to line the shaft's axis accurately with the housing bore.
  2. When compared to roller bearings, deep groove ball bearings are less rigid. This is due to the print contact compared with the line contact in case of roller bearing. For machine tool spindles, where rigidity is a key factor, it is incorrect.  

16 April 2024

What is Bearing? Types | Uses | Applications

A bearing is a mechanical component that reduces friction and allows relative motion between two parts, such as shaft and the housing. The function of bearing are follows. 

Function of bearing

  • The bearing ensures that the shaft or the axle rotates freely with minimum friction. 
  • The bearing supports the shaft or the axle and holds it in the proper place. 
  • The bearing absorbs the forces that act on the shaft or axle and transfers them to the frame or foundation. 
Depending on the direction of force acting on them, bearings are categorized in several ways. Below, we can examine the many types of bearings. 

Types of bearing

  • Radical bearing
  • Thrust bearing
Radical bearing supports the load, which is perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. While, Thrust bearing supports the load, which acts along the axis of the shaft. A Thrust bearing support the load, which at along the axis of the shaft.

Bearing are classify into two main groups: Sliding contact bearing and rolling contact bearing. Sliding contact bearing are also called plain bearing, journal bearing or sleeve bearing. Rolling contact bearing are also called antifriction bearing or simply ball bearings. 

Sliding contact bearing

In this case, the surface of the shaft slides over the surface of the bush resulting in friction and wear. In order to reduce the friction, these two surface are separated by a film of lubricating oil. 
Sliding Contact Bearing

      (a) Sliding Contact Bearing

Sliding contact bearing are used in the following applications
  • Crankshaft bearing in petrol and diesel engines
  • Centrifugal pumps
  • Large size electric motors
  • Steam and gas turbines 
  • Concrete mixers, rope conveyers and marine installations
Following are the advantages sliding contact bearing
  • The shaft has simple design.
  • They are less expensive.
  • They are more silent in operation
  • They are more compact.
  • They have good shocks load capacity
  • Suited for medial and high speed operation
Following are the disadvantages of sliding contact bearing
  • Frictional power loss is considerable.
  • They required careful attention to lubrication.
  • They are normally design to carry  radial load or axial load only.
Types of Sliding Contact Bearing
  1. Slipper Bearing 
  2. Journal or Sleeve Bearing
  3. Thrust Bearing
Rolling contact bearing

Rolling element such as balls or rollers, are introduced between the surfaces that are in relative motion. In this type of bearing sliding friction is replaced by rolling friction. 

Rolling Contact Bearing

(b) Rolling Contact Bearing

Rolling contract bearing are used in the following applications
  • Machine tool spindles
  • Automobile front and rear axels
  • Gear boxes
  • Small size electric motor
  • Rope sheaves crane hooks and hoisting drums
Following are the advantages of Rolling contact bearing
  • Rolling contact bearing is a simple lubrications.
  • These type of bearing are simple to replace.
  • Overall dimension is small.
  • Cleanliness.
  • It is low cost of maintenance.
  • These type of bearing are supported to both radial and trust loads.
  • These type of bearing structure are simple to maintain and compact.
  • Frictional starting torque is less than the frictional running torque.
Following are the disadvantages of Rolling contact bearing
  • High initial cost
  • Limited life span
  • This type of bearing is lower capacity to withstand stocks
Following are the types of Rolling contact bearing
  1. Deep Groove ball Bearing
  2. Cylindrical Roller Bearing
  3. Angular contact Bearing
  4. Taper Roller Bearing
  5. Thrust Ball Bearing

6 March 2024

What Makes Industrial Casters with Brakes Essential for Safety?

In the realm of industrial operations, the integration of custom caster wheels with brakes marks a pivotal advancement in ensuring workplace safety. Caster brakes operate by preventing the wheel from turning, therefore securing the load in place. These specialized wheels not only facilitate the movement of heavy loads but also bring an essential safety feature the ability to prevent motion as needed.

Incorporating brakes elevates their utility, offering unparalleled control and accident prevention. This article delves into the criticality of casters with brakes, contrasting them with free-turning wheel varieties and exploring the diverse types available.

It further discusses their indispensable benefits across various industries and offers guidance on selecting the ideal caster for specific needs. Each section aims to enhance the understanding of these vital components in industrial safety.

The Role of Brakes in Industrial Casters:

The addition of brakes to caster wheels has been pivotal in enhancing industrial safety. They provide assurance the load will not move, which is crucial in preventing accidents. This feature is particularly vital in fast-paced or crowded environments, where quick and controlled movements are essential.

The utility of caster wheels with brakes is undeniable in various industrial settings. Warehouses, for instance, benefit greatly from these, as they allow for safe navigation through aisles and tight spaces. These brakes ensure a secure position in manufacturing plants, where heavy machinery is frequently moved, contributing significantly to operational efficiency.

Similarly, casters with brakes offer the necessary control and precision in healthcare facilities, where the safe transport of equipment and patients is paramount.

The versatility of these wheels is evident in their widespread use across industries. Each setting demands specific safety protocols, and the brakes on caster wheels cater to these varied needs.

Industrial Casters without Brakes vs. Industrial Casters with Brakes:

Casters without Brakes and casters with Brakes differ fundamentally in their mechanism and application. Casters, devoid of braking systems, rely solely on manual force for movement and stopping. This lack of brakes can pose risks, especially when transporting heavy loads on uneven surfaces.

In contrast, casters having a braking system provide greater control and security of the load. This feature is crucial in preventing accidents and ensuring stability, especially in fast-paced industrial settings.

Caster wheel brakes provide this essential control, making them safer than casters with no brakes. They allow operators to manage the movement of heavy equipment efficiently, ensuring both safety and operational effectiveness.

Types of Brakes for Industrial Casters:

Single Side and Dual Side Caster Wheel Brakes

  • Single Side Caster Brakes:


Single Side Brakes are engineered for medium-sized, heavy-duty caster solutions. With a foot pedal conveniently located on one side, they eliminate the need for bending to engage the brake.

This design is ideal for six to 12-inch wheels, offering a blend of ergonomic operation and effective load stabilization. They are versatile, adapting to various caster styles, making them a popular choice for ensuring the stationary stability of carts and racks.

  • Dual Side Caster Brakes:

Designed for heavy-duty casters, Dual Side Brakes provide cost-effective solutions for tighter budgets. These require manual engagement on both sides, delivering reliable holding power.

Best suited for heavy-duty loads, their dual engagement feature ensures a secure lock on the hub, essential for the safe and efficient handling of materials.

  • Face Contact Brakes


Face Contact Brakes excel in handling heavy loads. They operate by the user tightening the brake shoe against the caster tread, offering robust stopping power. While highly effective for heavy loads, they are less ergonomic and may not be suitable for shock-absorbing wheels or softer materials.

Poly Lock and Poly Cam Brakes:

  • Poly Lock Brakes


Poly Lock Brakes are specifically designed for heavy-duty loads, utilizing a polyurethane lock roller and a steel brake shoe to create friction against the wheel's tread.

These brakes, foot-activated and available in toe-out or toe-in configurations, are valued for their ease of engagement and reliable stopping power.

  • Pneumatic Poly Cam Brakes


The Poly Cam Brake system allows for adjustable pressure on the wheel tread. Utilizing a polyurethane cam, it exerts direct pressure on the wheel surface, providing substantial holding force for extreme loads.

Similar to Poly Lock Brakes but offering more flexibility, these are ideal for heavy loads requiring shock absorption while maintaining stationary stability. Their foot-operated mechanism ensures ease of use.

Wrap Around (W) Brakes:


Wrap Around (W) Brakes address the challenge of aligning heavy-duty pivoting casters, so the brake pedal is accessible. These brakes are accessible from all angles, streamlining operation and enhancing safety. This design is a game-changer in busy industrial settings, saving time and reducing operator frustration.

Their all-angle accessibility ensures that brake engagement is always straightforward and efficient, no matter the caster's orientation.

Advantages of Braked Casters in Specific Industries:

Advantages in Manufacturing:

In manufacturing, safety and precision are paramount. Braked casters enhance these aspects by ensuring the intentional movement of heavy machinery and materials. Their ability to swiftly immobilize equipment reduces the risk of accidents, contributing significantly to workplace safety.

Additionally, their ease of manoeuvrability improves productivity, allowing for quick and efficient transportation of goods within the facility. The ergonomic design of these casters reduces physical strain on operators, further elevating the overall efficiency of manufacturing processes.

Benefits in Retail and Warehousing:

Retail and warehousing industries greatly benefit from braked casters in terms of improved mobility and safety. In busy retail environments, they facilitate the easy rearrangement of displays and shelves, while the brakes ensure stability and prevent unintended movement.

Braked casters on storage racks and material handling equipment in warehouses enhance safety by preventing accidental movements, especially when loading or unloading goods. This not only ensures the safety of the workforce but also improves operational efficiency.

Ergonomic Advantages across Industries:

Across all these industries, the ergonomic design of braked casters plays a crucial role. By providing easy brake engagement, these casters lessen the physical strain on operators.

This ergonomic advantage is instrumental in reducing work-related injuries and fatigue, enhancing productivity, and ensuring a safer working environment.

Selecting the Right Braked Caster for Your Facility:

Choosing the right braked caster is crucial for ensuring optimal performance and safety. It's important to consult with a reputable caster manufacturer to find a solution tailored to specific needs.

Assessing Load Requirements:

The foremost factor to consider is the load size. Casters must be capable of supporting the weight without compromising mobility or safety. For heavier loads, robust casters with strong brakes are essential. Conversely, lighter loads may require more flexible and lighter-duty solutions.

Evaluating Surface Conditions:

Surface conditions significantly influence caster selection. For smooth indoor surfaces, standard braked casters may suffice. However, uneven or outdoor environments demand casters with enhanced durability and braking power capable of handling varied terrain without losing grip or control.

Frequency of Use:

Finally, consider the frequency of use. High-use environments necessitate casters designed for durability and ease of use, especially regarding brake engagement. In less frequent applications, simpler brake mechanisms might be adequate.

Caster Concepts: Excellence in Braked Caster Manufacturing

Caster Concepts is a distinguished leader in the caster manufacturing industry. Known for high-quality caster wheels with brakes. Our long-standing history of delivering quality products demonstrates our commitment to excellence.

Known for its exceptional service, we continuously strive for 100% on-time delivery. Catering to various industries, Caster Concepts has established itself as a go-to source for reliable and tailored caster solutions.

27 February 2024

Gate valve advantages and disadvantages

Gate valves are widely utilized in many different applications and can be underground or put below ground. It can be used in fully closed or fully open mode. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of gate valves to better understand this topic.

Benefits or Advantages of Gate Valve

  1. It is inexpensive and has good valve rigidity.
  2. Simple design and low flow resistance.
  3. The closing features are very good for this valve.
  4. Gate valves offer superior sealing performance.
  5. It is easy to maintain and disassemble.
  6. It is good manufacturing technology.
  7. It takes very little torque to open and close.
  8. Installing it is simpler than installing other kinds of valves.
  9. The fluid resistance of gate valves is minimal.
  10. It can provide a larger flow capacity than a ball valve.
  11. installs more easily than other kinds of valves.
  12. They provide laminar flow, and the pressure loss is minimal.
  13. It works well with viscous liquids and slurries.
  14. There are two flow directions for gate valves.
  15. It is good manufacturing technology and a wide range of technology.
  16. The length of the structure is relatively short.
  17. Applications requiring zero leakage can be used it. It can be used for the most typical industrial uses, such as processing chemicals, gas, water, and oil.
  18. This valve can be used both ways in the circuit.

        Drawbacks or Disadvantages of Gate Valve

        1. It is difficult to repair and operate because it requires a lot of torque to open and close.
        2. Prone to scratches and  Poor throttling characteristics and not used for throttling conditions.
        3. The opening height and overall dimension are relatively large, which requires a large installation space.
        4. Both the entrance height and shape size are greater.
        5. The gate valve opens and closes slowly.
        6. It is complex and sensitive with many moving parts and seals.
        7. This valve can require regular calibration.
        8. It can be time-consuming and costly.
        9. Have high-pressure drop. The valve stem may not be strong enough to withstand high pressure and may break.
        10. The more parts, the structure is more complex.
        11. It's harder to manufacture and maintain.
        12. Gate valves can be difficult to place, making it difficult to achieve a good seal.
        13. Gate valves are more expensive than ball and butterfly types of valves. Because it requires more manufacturing materials.
        14. A gate valve's susceptibility to corrosion damage is another problem. This is a result of the metal used to make gate valves, which corrodes when exposed to liquids like water. This could lead to a leak or even the valve failing.
        15. Another disadvantage of gate valves is that they can become stuck. so it can be difficult to open or close the valve, long time to open and close. causing difficulties in the piping system.

        20 January 2024

        Advantages and Disadvantages of Ball Valve

        The advantages of ball valves are to be it are low maintenance, easy to operate, easy to use, simple to repair, strong, versatile, durable, open and close quickly, lower cost, have no leakage. The disadvantage of a ball valve is it has limited flow control. It is difficult to repair, and not suitable for all applications. It can be difficult to operate and has a higher torque requirement. Before you make the final selection, let's find the advantages and disadvantages of ball valves so you can make an informed choice

        Advantages or Benefits of Ball Valve

        1. Ball valves are very durable have a simple design and are easy to open and close. 
        2. Ball valves are easily quick and simple to install.
        3. They have very small dimensions compared to gate valves.
        4. Another benefit of a ball valve is that it is simple to maintain and manage high pressure and flow of temperature.
        5. Compared to other kinds of valves, they require less control.
        6. Ball valve provides leakproof service.
        7. They are smaller than gate valves.
        8. Ball valves are also very versatile and may be utilized in various industrial applications, including controlling the flow of liquids and gases.
        9. Ball valves need less maintenance and cost significantly less than equivalent devices for the same task.
        10. Ball valves do not require any maintenance and create a bubble-tight seal with minimal torque.
        11. These valves come in a variety of sizes and forms, so they provide users greater options.

                      Disadvantages or Drawbacks of Ball Valve

                      1. One of the primary drawbacks of ball valves is that they have limited flow control.
                      2. Frequent operation and high-velocity flow can wear out the ball and valve seats, reducing their lifespan. So it needs for maintenance and replacement.
                      3. another issue with balls is that they can be difficult to repair. If the problem with the seal, the entire valve will need to be replaced.
                      4. If the ball valve leaks, it can cause major damage to equipment and property.
                      5. The main issue with the ball valve is that it is not a good choice for throttling for a long time. So it could not be used for throttling. Due to this reason, the ball valve loses its efficiency during permanent throttling.

                      A Ball valve is a simple mechanical device used to control the flow of fluid through the piping system. The advantages of ball valves are it is convenient and cost-effective making them ideal for most industrial applications. 

                      1 January 2024

                      Gear pump Advantages and Disadvantages

                      A set of gears moves fluid through the pump. A gear pump has two different kinds of gear: driven and driver. There are so many advantages of a gear pump like, it is low cost, easy to maintain,  less sensitive, works silently, is simple, and has high work efficiency. The disadvantages of gear pumps are it is difficult to replace parts, generate extensive noise, very loud. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of gear pumps to better understand this topic.

                      Benefits or Advantages of Gear Pump

                      1. Gear pumps are a suitable option for settings where noise pollution is an issue because they operate smoothly.
                      2. The gear pump works silently.
                      3. Because of its simple construction, gear pumps are simple to take apart repair, and put back together.
                      4. The gear pump works between 93% and 98% of its capacity, sometimes even reaching 100%.
                      5. They provide controllable output.
                      6. The cavity of this pump is less sensitive.
                      7. It is capable of transferring medium-sized solids.
                      8. Compared to other pumps, the gear pumps are light in weight and easy to transport compared to the conventional pump.
                      9. During fluid transfer, there is no friction between the surface materials.
                      10. Both high and low-viscosity products can be transferred with it without any issues.
                      11. It can be widely applied to occasions with low-pressure requirements and medium and low machine tools.
                      12. The gear pump is 100% leak-free design offers excellent chemical contentment.
                      13. With its 100% leak-proof design, the gear pump provides outstanding chemical contentment.
                      Drawbacks or Disadvantages of Gear Pump
                      • The gear pump is not best for abrasive fluids because of its meshing gears.
                      • These pumps generate extensive noise.
                      • They supply pulsating flow.
                      • It cannot pump solid.
                      • Gear pumps can be very loud.
                      • It becomes cost-competitive above 400 LPH.
                      • It provides extremely poor dry suction lift.

                      20 December 2023

                      Butterfly valve Advantages and Disadvantages

                      The butterfly valve is a device that assists in enhancing flow control. There are several varieties and sizes of butterfly valves. Their performance varies depending on the design of wastewater collecting and water distribution application. The advantages of the Butterfly valve is it is Light in weight, compact, simple, cost-effective, has Low maintenance requirement, ease of operation and actuation. Disadvantages of the Butterfly valve are No high-pressure throttling, Poor sealing function, Cavitation, and choked flow. If you would like to know more about butterfly valves, let us check out the advantages and disadvantages of butterfly valves.

                      Some of the Advantages of Butterfly valve are given below

                      1. This valve has a good adjustment performance.
                      2. This valve is operated frequently due to its easy opening and closing with little fluid resistance.
                      3. It is possible to achieve good sealing at low pressure.
                      4. At the pipe mouth, mud may be carried and stored in the least amount of liquid.
                      5. It is easy to install thus it is widely used in industrial applications.
                      6. The performance of the low-pressure sealing is good.
                      7. It is simple in structure and smaller in size than a ball valve of the same diameter needs.
                      8. Light in weight compared to a ball valve.
                      9. The compact design of a butterfly valve requires considerably less space as compared with a globe valve, gate valve, or other valves.
                      10. It is a short structure length, suitable for large caliber valves, thus this valve provides a bubble-tight service.
                      11. The method saves labor and is flexible. One may select from manual, electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic modes.

                      Some of the Disadvantages of a Butterfly valve are given below

                      1. The range of Working temperature and working pressure is small.
                      2. It is a Poor sealing function.
                      3. Service for throttling butterfly valves is restricted to low-pressure drop.
                      4. When butte4rfly valves work there is a risk of cavitation and choked flow.
                      5. The movement of the butterfly valve is affected by flow turbulence.

                      18 December 2023

                      Globe valve Advantages and Disadvantages

                      A globe valve is an opening and closing(new valve) part that is moved linearly up and down the valve seat(sealing surface) axis using the valve system. So let us check out the globe valve advantages and disadvantages to better understand this topic.

                      Benefits or Advantages of Globe Valve

                      1. It is a good shutoff capability.
                      2. The glove valve structure is simpler.
                      3. It is lower cost.
                      4. It is a better manufacturing process.
                      5. Easy maintenance.
                      6. The stroke length is short as compared to a gate valve.
                      7. Globe valve is available in tee, wye, and angle patterns.
                      8. Valve throttling capabilities range from moderate to excellent.
                      9. As a stop check valve, it can be used.
                      10. Globe valves are durable.
                      11. Globe valves can handle high-pressure applications.
                      12. In the long term, it can save money.

                      Drawbacks or Disadvantages of Globe Valve

                      1. It is a higher pressure drop.
                      2. It requires greater force.
                      3. Require additional energy to maintain rates.
                      4. Globe valves are mostly larger and heavier.
                      5. Limited suitability for high flow rates.
                      6. Poor regulation performance.
                      7. The globe valve has big flow resistance.
                      8. It is not suitable for the medium with particles.
                      9. It is more expensive than some other types of valves.
                      10. A Globe valve is a large opening and closing power.
                      Related Article:

                      13 December 2023

                      Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable plastics

                      Biodegradable plastics are made when ultraviolet radiation, enzymes, bacteria, and water are exposed and break down. It is made from traditional petrochemicals but designed to break down faster. There are several advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable plastics. You can check it out here in this article. 

                      Advantages of biodegradable plastics

                      1. Recycling biodegradable plastics is easy and simple.  
                      2. Biodegradable plastics consume less energy during their manufacturing. 
                      3. They contain less harmful chemicals. 
                      4. It is less harmful because it releases fewer toxic substances. 
                      5. It can decompose quickly as waste is less. 
                      6. It produces fewer emissions and less carbon dioxide. 
                      7. It consumes less fossil fuels. 
                      8. Biodegradable plastics have recently been used for export industry. 
                      9. The dependence on oil is reduced due to the alternative of biodegradable plastics. 
                      10. The use of biodegradable plastics is good for our environment. 

                      Disadvantages of biodegradable plastics

                      1. Expensive to produce as costly equipment is used for both processing and recycling. 
                      2. Engineering problems may arise, as they are made from plants such as corn and soybeans. 
                      3. There is a risk of contamination due to confusion between biodegradable and non-biodegradable plastics. 
                      4. Some biodegradable plastics may produce methane when decomposing in landfills. 
                      5. Biodegradable plastics do not solve ocean pollution problem. 
                      6. Some biodegradable plastics may contain metals. It raises the issue of toxicity left after decomposition. 

                      12 December 2023

                      Advantages and disadvantages of solid lubricants

                      A lubricant is a substance in the form of solid or liquid, that helps machine easily and smoothly. It is used to reduce the friction between two contact surfaces. Solid lubricant is also called dry lubricant. Graphite, Molybdenum disulfide, and Solvents are some of the popular solid lubricants. There are many advantages and disadvantages of solid lubricants. You can check and understand more about solid lubricants here in this article. 

                      Advantages of solid lubricants

                      1. Solid lubricants are highly stable in high-temperature and high-pressure environments. 
                      2. Solid lubricants provide permanent lubrication with no leakages. 
                      3. It is good boundary lubrication and it has good electrical conductivity. 
                      4. It enables the machine to be simple and lighter because no seals or lubrication distribution system is required. 
                      5. Solid lubricants are more effective as compared with liquid lubricants when there is high loading at contact points. 
                      6. It offers benefits at locations where servicing is difficult. 
                      7. High resistance to abrasion in high-dust environment. 
                      8. High resistance to deterioration in high radiation and reactive environment. 
                      9. Lubrication loss is minimal in a solid lubrication system. 
                      10. You can easily store solid lubricants for a long time. 
                      11. No viscosity effects when we use solid lubricants, thus it provides corrosion protection. 

                      Disadvantages of solid lubricants

                      1. The endurance life of this lubricant is dependent on operating conditions such as atmosphere, loading contact, and sliding speed. 
                      2. Solid lubricants have poor adhesion, poor heat dissipation, and poor self-healing properties.
                      3. It can produce unpredictable torque at low speeds due to the heavy transfer of these lubricants.  
                      4. Solid lubricants have a higher coefficient of friction and wear for hydrodynamic lubrication. 
                      5. The reapplication of solid lubrication is difficult or impossible. 

                      Advantages and disadvantages of liquid lubricants

                      A lubricant is a substance in the form of a solid or liquid, that helps the machine work easily and smoothly. It is used to reduce friction between two contact surfaces. Oil and grease are two popular and widely used liquid lubricants. There are many advantages and disadvantages of liquid lubricants. You can check them one by one here in this article. 

                      Advantages of liquid lubricants

                      1. Long endurance lives if lubricants are properly used. 
                      2. Low mechanical noise in most lubrication systems. 
                      3. Very low friction in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication system. 
                      4. No wear between the two surfaces, as lubrication makes the surface slippery and slick. 
                      5. No wear in the elastohydrodynamic system. 
                      6. Promotion of thermal conductance between two surfaces. 
                      7. The protective layer formed by lubricants helps to safeguard the component's surface against rust and corrosion. 

                      Disadvantages of liquid lubricants

                      1. Long-term storage of lubricants is difficult. 
                      2. Endurance life is dependent on lubrication loss. 
                      3. Additives are necessarily used for a boundary lubrication system. 
                      4. Friction is dependent on speed in the liquid lubrication system. 
                      5. The temperature of this type of lubrication is dependent on viscosity, vapor pressure, and creep. 
                      6. We need to use seals or barrier coatings to prevent creep. 
                      7. Finite vapor pressure and oil loss. 

                      10 November 2023

                      5 Surprising Benefits of Gold Plating: Unveiling the Extraordinary Advantages


                      Gold plating, a process that involves depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of an object, has been used for centuries to enhance the appearance and durability of various items. While it is well-known for its aesthetic appeal, there are several lesser-known benefits associated with gold plating that make it a valuable technique across a range of industries. In this article, we will delve into five surprising advantages of gold plating that go beyond its obvious visual charm.

                      Corrosion Resistance: Shielding Your Investment

                      One of the remarkable benefits of gold plating is its exceptional resistance to corrosion. Gold is a noble metal, meaning it does not readily react with other elements, and is highly resistant to tarnish and oxidation. When applied through the gold plating process, a layer of gold creates a protective barrier that shields the underlying material from environmental factors such as moisture, chemicals, and pollutants. This makes gold-plated items ideal for use in environments where corrosion is a concern, such as marine applications, electronic components, and aerospace equipment.

                      According to a study conducted by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, gold-plated connectors exhibited up to 10 times higher corrosion resistance compared to non-plated connectors in accelerated corrosion tests, highlighting the substantial advantage of gold plating in preventing material degradation.

                      Improved Electrical Conductivity: Enhancing Performance

                      Gold is renowned for its exceptional electrical conductivity, making it an indispensable material in the electronics industry. When used in electrical contacts and connectors, gold plating ensures reliable and low-resistance electrical connections. This is crucial in applications where signal integrity and performance are paramount, such as in high-frequency devices, telecommunications equipment, and medical devices.

                      A report from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) states that gold-plated connectors can offer up to 50% lower contact resistance compared to other materials, leading to more efficient and reliable electrical connections.

                      Biocompatibility: A Key Element in Medical Applications

                      In the realm of healthcare, biocompatibility is a critical consideration. Gold plating has gained prominence in the medical industry due to its excellent biocompatibility. It is non-toxic and non-allergenic, making it suitable for use in medical implants, surgical instruments, and diagnostic equipment. Gold-plated surfaces are also less likely to cause irritation or adverse reactions when in contact with the human body, ensuring patient safety and comfort.

                      A study published in the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research demonstrated the superior biocompatibility of gold-plated implants compared to those made from other materials, underscoring the importance of gold-plating in medical applications.

                      Wear Resistance: Prolonging the Lifespan

                      Another hidden advantage of gold plating is its ability to enhance wear resistance. The hardness of gold-plated surfaces, combined with its corrosion-resistant properties, makes it an excellent choice for items subjected to frequent use and abrasion. This includes jewelry, watch components and mechanical parts. Gold plating adds a protective layer that can significantly extend the lifespan of these items, reducing the need for frequent replacements.

                      A study conducted by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) found that gold-plated watch components exhibited significantly lower wear rates compared to non-plated components, highlighting the effectiveness of gold plating in prolonging the lifespan of mechanical parts.

                      Enhanced Aesthetics and Prestige: Beyond Surface Beauty

                      While the visual appeal of gold-plated services is widely acknowledged, there is a deeper psychological impact associated with the presence of gold. Possessing gold-plated items can evoke feelings of value and significance, making them desirable possessions and status symbols. This psychological element adds an intangible but significant benefit to the allure of gold-plated objects.


                      In conclusion, gold plating offers a range of surprising benefits that extend beyond its aesthetic appeal. From corrosion resistance and improved electrical conductivity to biocompatibility, wear resistance, and enhanced prestige, the advantages of gold plating are diverse and impactful across various industries. Understanding these lesser-known benefits can lead to more informed and strategic use of gold plating in a wide range of applications, ultimately enhancing the quality and longevity of products and components.

                      25 September 2023

                      How to Induce Elasticity in Polystyrene?

                      Polystyrene is a widely used polymer known for its rigid and brittle nature. It is a widely used polymer in various custom machining industries due to its low cost, easy processability, and excellent electrical insulating properties. 

                      However, its inherent brittleness has limited its applications in scenarios that require flexibility and resilience.  Thus, there are various techniques and methods available to induce elasticity in polystyrene, making it more flexible and versatile for different applications. 

                      In this article, we'll explore some effective ways to enhance the elasticity of polystyrene making it suitable for a broader range of uses in custom CNC machining services.

                      Factors Influencing Elasticity in Polystyrene

                      Many factors can influence the elasticity of polystyrene. Understanding and manipulating these factors enable the tailoring of polystyrene's mechanical properties to meet specific application requirements.

                      Molecular Structure and Chain Flexibility

                      The molecular structure of polystyrene plays a pivotal role in determining its elasticity. Polystyrene is made up of long chains of repeating styrene monomer units. The arrangement and length of these chains influence the material's flexibility and ability to return to its original shape after deformation. 

                      Long, linear chains can hinder movement and reduce elasticity, while introducing branches or incorporating more flexible monomers can enhance chain mobility and increase elasticity.

                      Temperature and Thermal Properties

                      Temperature has a significant impact on the elasticity of polystyrene. At higher temperatures, the kinetic energy of polymer chains increases, allowing them to move more freely and making the material more elastic. 

                      However, extreme temperatures can lead to thermal degradation, reducing elasticity. The glass transition temperature (Tg) is a critical point for polystyrene. Above Tg, the material transitions from a rigid, glassy state to a rubbery state, increasing its elasticity.

                      Elasticity Inducing Techniques for Polystyrene

                      1. Annealing and Heat Treatment Techniques

                      Annealing and heat treatment are techniques commonly used to induce elasticity in polystyrene. By manipulating its molecular arrangement and reducing internal stresses you can get better quality for custom machining.


                      Annealing involves subjecting a material to controlled heating and controlled cooling cycles in order to alter its internal structure and relieve stresses. In the case of polystyrene, annealing can help increase its elasticity by allowing the polymer chains to relax and reorganize themselves.

                      1. Heating Phase: Polystyrene samples are heated to a temperature slightly below its glass transition temperature (Tg). This allows the polymer chains to become more mobile and enables them to move and rearrange.

                      2. Holding Phase: The material is held at this temperature for a specific period, allowing the polymer chains to adjust their positions and relieve internal stresses that may have developed during processing or deformation.

                      3. Cooling Phase: After the holding phase, the samples are gradually cooled to room temperature. During this cooling process, the polymer chains become locked in a more relaxed and organized state, which contributes to improved elasticity.

                      Heat Treatment

                      Heat treatment involves subjecting polystyrene to higher temperatures for a specific duration to induce changes in its molecular structure, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. 

                      This process can lead to improved elasticity by promoting the rearrangement of polymer chains and increasing chain mobility.

                      1. Heating Phase: Polystyrene samples are heated to a temperature above its glass transition temperature or even slightly above its melting temperature. This allows the polymer chains to move more freely.

                      2. Holding Phase: The material is held at the elevated temperature for a specific period to ensure sufficient molecular rearrangement and relaxation of stresses.

                      3. Cooling Phase: The samples are gradually cooled down to room temperature or below. The slow cooling helps maintain the changes induced during the heat treatment.

                      Both annealing and heat treatment help reduce internal stresses and allow the polymer chains to regain a more relaxed and organized state, resulting in improved elasticity. Also, these processes can lead to increased ductility and toughness, making the material more resistant to deformation and better able to recover its original shape.

                      2. Incorporation of Elastomers or Rubber Modifiers

                      Elastomers are polymers with a high degree of flexibility and the ability to return to their original shape after deformation. When these elastomers or rubber modifiers are blended with polystyrene, they create a sophisticated composite material. This material combines the rigidity of polystyrene with the elasticity of rubber, resulting in improved overall elasticity for custom CNC machining.

                      1. Selection of Elastomer: Choose an appropriate elastomer or rubber modifier that complements the desired mechanical properties of the final material. Common elastomers used with polystyrene include polybutadiene and styrene-butadiene rubber.

                      2. Blending: Mix the chosen elastomer with polystyrene through a process such as melt blending. This can be done using techniques like extrusion or compounding, ensuring thorough distribution of the elastomer throughout the polystyrene matrix.

                      3. Processing: The blended mixture is then processed using conventional methods like injection molding, extrusion, or compression molding to shape the material according to the desired form and application.

                      The presence of elastomers imparts greater flexibility and elastic behaviour to the polystyrene matrix, allowing it to deform under stress and recover its original shape upon release. Besides, elastomers can significantly increase the material's impact resistance and ability to absorb energy, making it less prone to fracture or breakage.

                      3. Copolymerization with Other Monomers

                      Copolymerization involves the simultaneous polymerization of two or more different monomers to create a polymer chain that combines the properties of both. By copolymerizing polystyrene with a more flexible monomer, the resulting copolymer can exhibit increased elasticity. It also leads to retaining some of the polystyrene's other desirable properties for custom cnc service.

                      1. Monomer Selection: Choose a suitable monomer to copolymerize with styrene. Monomers that introduce flexibility and elasticity, such as butadiene, can be selected.

                      2. Copolymerization: The selected monomer is polymerized alongside styrene using suitable catalysts and reaction conditions. The resulting polymer chain consists of alternating segments of both monomers.

                      3. Tailoring Properties: The ratio of styrene to the flexible monomer can be adjusted to control the degree of elasticity and other mechanical properties in the final copolymer.

                      By adjusting the monomer ratio and polymerization conditions, it's possible to fine-tune the material's mechanical properties to match specific application requirements. The copolymer can still retain some of the inherent strength and rigidity of polystyrene while gaining elasticity.

                      4. Plasticization and Utilization of Plasticizers

                      Plasticization involves incorporating specific additives called plasticizers into the polystyrene matrix. These plasticizers interact with the polymer chains, reducing the forces between them and promoting greater mobility. This results in improved flexibility and elasticity of the material used in producing cnc machining parts.

                      1. Plasticizer Selection: Choose a suitable plasticizer based on its compatibility with polystyrene and its ability to reduce intermolecular forces. Common plasticizers include phthalates, adipates, and citrates.

                      2. Addition and Mixing: The chosen plasticizer is added to polystyrene and thoroughly mixed. This can be done through processes like melt blending or solution mixing.

                      3. Plasticization: Plasticizers penetrate between the polymer chains, creating space and reducing intermolecular forces. This enables the chains to move more freely, increasing the material's flexibility and elasticity.

                      The amount and type of plasticizer added can be adjusted to achieve the desired level of elasticity while maintaining other mechanical properties. Plasticized polystyrene gains improved toughness and impact resistance due to its enhanced ability to absorb energy.


                      Incorporating elasticity into polystyrene opens up a world of possibilities for its applications across various industries including custom machining. Annealing, heat treatment, elastomer incorporation, copolymerization, and plasticization are effective methods to enhance the polymer's flexibility and resilience. By carefully selecting and combining these techniques, manufacturers can tailor polystyrene properties to meet specific requirements.