How to Induce Elasticity in Polystyrene?

Polystyrene is a widely used polymer known for its rigid and brittle nature. It is a widely used polymer in various custom machining industries due to its low cost, easy processability, and excellent electrical insulating properties. 

However, its inherent brittleness has limited its applications in scenarios that require flexibility and resilience.  Thus, there are various techniques and methods available to induce elasticity in polystyrene, making it more flexible and versatile for different applications. 

In this article, we'll explore some effective ways to enhance the elasticity of polystyrene making it suitable for a broader range of uses in custom CNC machining services.

Factors Influencing Elasticity in Polystyrene

Many factors can influence the elasticity of polystyrene. Understanding and manipulating these factors enable the tailoring of polystyrene's mechanical properties to meet specific application requirements.

Molecular Structure and Chain Flexibility

The molecular structure of polystyrene plays a pivotal role in determining its elasticity. Polystyrene is made up of long chains of repeating styrene monomer units. The arrangement and length of these chains influence the material's flexibility and ability to return to its original shape after deformation. 

Long, linear chains can hinder movement and reduce elasticity, while introducing branches or incorporating more flexible monomers can enhance chain mobility and increase elasticity.

Temperature and Thermal Properties

Temperature has a significant impact on the elasticity of polystyrene. At higher temperatures, the kinetic energy of polymer chains increases, allowing them to move more freely and making the material more elastic. 

However, extreme temperatures can lead to thermal degradation, reducing elasticity. The glass transition temperature (Tg) is a critical point for polystyrene. Above Tg, the material transitions from a rigid, glassy state to a rubbery state, increasing its elasticity.

Elasticity Inducing Techniques for Polystyrene

1. Annealing and Heat Treatment Techniques

Annealing and heat treatment are techniques commonly used to induce elasticity in polystyrene. By manipulating its molecular arrangement and reducing internal stresses you can get better quality for custom machining.


Annealing involves subjecting a material to controlled heating and controlled cooling cycles in order to alter its internal structure and relieve stresses. In the case of polystyrene, annealing can help increase its elasticity by allowing the polymer chains to relax and reorganize themselves.

1. Heating Phase: Polystyrene samples are heated to a temperature slightly below its glass transition temperature (Tg). This allows the polymer chains to become more mobile and enables them to move and rearrange.

2. Holding Phase: The material is held at this temperature for a specific period, allowing the polymer chains to adjust their positions and relieve internal stresses that may have developed during processing or deformation.

3. Cooling Phase: After the holding phase, the samples are gradually cooled to room temperature. During this cooling process, the polymer chains become locked in a more relaxed and organized state, which contributes to improved elasticity.

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment involves subjecting polystyrene to higher temperatures for a specific duration to induce changes in its molecular structure, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. 

This process can lead to improved elasticity by promoting the rearrangement of polymer chains and increasing chain mobility.

1. Heating Phase: Polystyrene samples are heated to a temperature above its glass transition temperature or even slightly above its melting temperature. This allows the polymer chains to move more freely.

2. Holding Phase: The material is held at the elevated temperature for a specific period to ensure sufficient molecular rearrangement and relaxation of stresses.

3. Cooling Phase: The samples are gradually cooled down to room temperature or below. The slow cooling helps maintain the changes induced during the heat treatment.

Both annealing and heat treatment help reduce internal stresses and allow the polymer chains to regain a more relaxed and organized state, resulting in improved elasticity. Also, these processes can lead to increased ductility and toughness, making the material more resistant to deformation and better able to recover its original shape.

2. Incorporation of Elastomers or Rubber Modifiers

Elastomers are polymers with a high degree of flexibility and the ability to return to their original shape after deformation. When these elastomers or rubber modifiers are blended with polystyrene, they create a sophisticated composite material. This material combines the rigidity of polystyrene with the elasticity of rubber, resulting in improved overall elasticity for custom CNC machining.

1. Selection of Elastomer: Choose an appropriate elastomer or rubber modifier that complements the desired mechanical properties of the final material. Common elastomers used with polystyrene include polybutadiene and styrene-butadiene rubber.

2. Blending: Mix the chosen elastomer with polystyrene through a process such as melt blending. This can be done using techniques like extrusion or compounding, ensuring thorough distribution of the elastomer throughout the polystyrene matrix.

3. Processing: The blended mixture is then processed using conventional methods like injection molding, extrusion, or compression molding to shape the material according to the desired form and application.

The presence of elastomers imparts greater flexibility and elastic behaviour to the polystyrene matrix, allowing it to deform under stress and recover its original shape upon release. Besides, elastomers can significantly increase the material's impact resistance and ability to absorb energy, making it less prone to fracture or breakage.

3. Copolymerization with Other Monomers

Copolymerization involves the simultaneous polymerization of two or more different monomers to create a polymer chain that combines the properties of both. By copolymerizing polystyrene with a more flexible monomer, the resulting copolymer can exhibit increased elasticity. It also leads to retaining some of the polystyrene's other desirable properties for custom cnc service.

1. Monomer Selection: Choose a suitable monomer to copolymerize with styrene. Monomers that introduce flexibility and elasticity, such as butadiene, can be selected.

2. Copolymerization: The selected monomer is polymerized alongside styrene using suitable catalysts and reaction conditions. The resulting polymer chain consists of alternating segments of both monomers.

3. Tailoring Properties: The ratio of styrene to the flexible monomer can be adjusted to control the degree of elasticity and other mechanical properties in the final copolymer.

By adjusting the monomer ratio and polymerization conditions, it's possible to fine-tune the material's mechanical properties to match specific application requirements. The copolymer can still retain some of the inherent strength and rigidity of polystyrene while gaining elasticity.

4. Plasticization and Utilization of Plasticizers

Plasticization involves incorporating specific additives called plasticizers into the polystyrene matrix. These plasticizers interact with the polymer chains, reducing the forces between them and promoting greater mobility. This results in improved flexibility and elasticity of the material used in producing cnc machining parts.

1. Plasticizer Selection: Choose a suitable plasticizer based on its compatibility with polystyrene and its ability to reduce intermolecular forces. Common plasticizers include phthalates, adipates, and citrates.

2. Addition and Mixing: The chosen plasticizer is added to polystyrene and thoroughly mixed. This can be done through processes like melt blending or solution mixing.

3. Plasticization: Plasticizers penetrate between the polymer chains, creating space and reducing intermolecular forces. This enables the chains to move more freely, increasing the material's flexibility and elasticity.

The amount and type of plasticizer added can be adjusted to achieve the desired level of elasticity while maintaining other mechanical properties. Plasticized polystyrene gains improved toughness and impact resistance due to its enhanced ability to absorb energy.


Incorporating elasticity into polystyrene opens up a world of possibilities for its applications across various industries including custom machining. Annealing, heat treatment, elastomer incorporation, copolymerization, and plasticization are effective methods to enhance the polymer's flexibility and resilience. By carefully selecting and combining these techniques, manufacturers can tailor polystyrene properties to meet specific requirements.

Pros and cons of mining

The pros of mining are creates jobs, and improves the economic growth of the country. The cons of mining are leads to soil and groundwater pollution and loss of biodiversity. There are certain pros and cons of mining. Let us check out the mining advantages and disadvantages to know more about it. 

Pros of Mining are 

  1. Mining allows a good amount of mineral and ore resources.
  2. It can create a number of jobs in the mining industry.  
  3. It has the potential to assist underprivileged regions in developing and progressing. 
  4. Important for technological progress.
  5. Major income source for some countries.
  6. It may help to improve the economic growth of the country.  
  7. Mining is necessary for many products in daily life. 
  8. The efficiency of mining has been optimized over time. 
  9. Low operating cost and high productivity. 

Cons of Mining are

  1. It can lead to soil and groundwater pollution. 
  2. Loss of biodiversity. 
  3. Safety concerns as it requires a worker to go underground. 
  4. Mining can be dangerous too. 
  5. Insufficient regulations formed regarding mining. 
  6. Ecological imbalance. 
  7. Landslides become more likely. 
  8. Depletion of natural resources. 
  9. High cost as it needs advanced equipment. 

What are the responsibilities of a renewable energy consultant?

Renewable energy is a rapidly growing industry as more people become aware of the impact of fossil fuels on the environment. Renewable energy consultants are professionals who provide guidance and support to individuals, businesses, and governments who want to transition to renewable energy sources. In this article, we will explore the responsibilities of a renewable energy consultant and the benefits of working with one.

What is a Renewable Energy Consultant?

A renewable energy consultant is a professional who helps clients with decarbonization strategies by enabling a smooth transition to renewable energy sources. They provide ESG sustainability advice and services to clients to increase and switch to use of renewable energy sources like biodiesel, ethanol, renewable diesel, sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), bioplastics, green hydrogen, fuel cells, solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass. They work with clients to identify the most appropriate renewable energy source for their needs and help them to implement sustainable energy solutions.

Renewable energy consultants also assist with identifying GHG emissions and other climate technologies that reduce or eliminate harmful carbon dioxide and other pollutants from the atmosphere and thus comply with 2045 Net Zero targets.

Responsibilities of a Renewable Energy Consultant

Conducting Feasibility Studies

One of the main responsibilities of a renewable energy consultant is to conduct feasibility studies. These studies are conducted to determine the viability of a renewable energy project. The consultant assesses factors such as location, energy demand, peak demand, groundwater reserves, scope 1, 2 & 3 emissions, available resources, and potential return on investment. They help clients to determine whether a renewable energy project is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. A feasibility study is an essential tool for making informed decisions about renewable energy investments.

Developing Renewable Energy Strategies

Another responsibility of a renewable energy consultant is to develop renewable energy strategies for clients. They work with clients to develop a plan to transition to renewable energy sources. The strategy can include carbon emissions monitoring, negative emission technologies like carbon capture, direct air capture, building energy storage facilities, using renewable natural gas, solar energy, energy efficient devices and other renewable energy sources that are suitable for the client's needs, determining the most effective way to implement them, and providing guidance on financing options including evaluating returns on investment (RoI)

Providing Energy Audits

Renewable energy consulting firms may also provide energy audits or climate risk audit for clients. These audits assess the energy usage of a building or facility and identify areas where energy efficiency can be improved or understanding the impact of climate or weather related events (flash floods, drought, tsunamis or other natural calamities) on real estate or industrial facilities. The consultant may recommend energy-efficient equipment and technologies, as well as behavioural changes that can help to reduce energy consumption. An energy audit can help clients to reduce energy costs and improve energy efficiency.

Managing Renewable Energy Projects

Renewable energy projects can be complex and require specialized knowledge and expertise to be successfully implemented. A renewable energy consultant can provide project management services, green bonds, ESG ratings and help clients to manage renewable energy projects from inception to completion. This includes everything from planning, green financing and design to construction and commissioning.

Identifying ESG Financing Options

ESG or Green Financing is another area where a renewable energy consultant can offer valuable support. Renewable energy projects can be expensive, and financing can be difficult to secure. A renewable energy consultant can help clients to identify financing options, including government grants and incentives (Inflation Reduction Act), private investment, ESG rating based low interest loans and crowdfunding. They can also help clients to prepare funding applications and negotiate financing terms.

Ensuring Regulatory Compliance

Renewable energy projects are subject to a range of regulations, including environmental regulations, building codes, and zoning laws. A renewable energy consultant can help clients to navigate these regulations, ensuring that their renewable energy projects comply with all applicable laws and regulations. This can be particularly important for businesses and governments looking to implement renewable energy projects on a large scale.

Benefits of Working with a Renewable Energy Consultant 

Reduced Energy Costs

Working with a renewable energy consultant can help clients to reduce energy costs. By transitioning to green energy, clients can reduce their dependence on fossil fuels like crude oil, coal and other traditional energy sources which are damaging the environment and causing immense climate events globally. Renewable energy sources such as offshore solar and wind can provide a cost-effective and sustainable source of energy. 

Improved Energy Efficiency

A renewable energy consultant can also help clients to improve energy efficiency by using IoT devices, Smart meters and other energy analytics software. By conducting energy audits and recommending energy-efficient technologies, clients can reduce energy consumption and save money on energy bills and further improve the brand value as more consumers seek environmentally friendly businesses.

Increased Energy Independence

Renewable energy sources can also increase energy independence by domestically producing it in an eco-friendly way. By generating their own renewable energy, clients can reduce their dependence on traditional energy providers and increase their control over their clean energy supply.

Climate Friendly & Sustainable Future

By transitioning to renewable energy sources, clients can also contribute to a more sustainable future. Renewable energy sources produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuels, reducing the impact of climate change. A renewable energy consultant can help clients to make a positive impact on the environment and contribute to a more sustainable future.


Renewable energy consultants play an important role in the transition to renewable energy sources. They provide guidance and support to clients who want to make the switch to identify the most suitable renewable energy sources for their needs, develop renewable energy strategies, conduct feasibility studies, manage renewable energy projects, and ensure regulatory compliance. By working with a renewable energy consultant, clients can reduce energy costs, improve energy efficiency, increase energy independence, and contribute to a more sustainable future.

As the demand for renewable energy continues to grow, the need for renewable energy consultants is also increasing. Businesses, governments, and individuals are looking for ways to transition to renewable energy sources, and renewable energy consultants can provide the expertise and guidance needed to make that transition successful. By working with a renewable energy consultant, clients can be assured that they are making informed decisions about their renewable energy investments and contributing to a more sustainable future for us all.

Disadvantages of sunroof in cars

When you buy a new car with a sunroof, you may usually try it out once or twice, but after that week later you forget that it's even there. The main disadvantage of sunroofs is that use, particularly in cities with hot climates is minimal and thus, it gets deteriorate with time with no use. In addition, the replacement or repair costs are expensive. You can also check other disadvantages of sunroofs in cars when you consider buying a car with a sunroof. 

Disadvantages of sunroof in cars

  1. Sunroofs affect the mileage of the car. Driving at high speeds with an open sunroof affects the aerodynamics of the car which causes additional drag. 
  2. The sunroof eats the headroom. 
  3. When the car gets old, the sunroof often starts leaking. 
  4. As we talk in the first paragraph, keeping the sunroof in working condition required a lot of regular maintenance. 
  5. After years, the sunroof electrical motor starts creating electrical problems. 

Panoramic sunroof pros and cons

Cars with panoramic sunroofs catch attraction to buyers of all ages for many reasons. Those who want to enjoy the open air without the roof structure can do so at the press of a button. It opens much like regular sunroofs and allows light and a great view of stars and the sky. The pros of a Panoramic sunroof are extra light, visibility, ventilation and style. The cons of a Panoramic Sunroof are extra weight, complexity, expense, and headroom. There are several pros and cons of panoramic sunroof owning a car with a panoramic sunroof. Read More! 

Pros of Panoramic Sunroof

  1. A panoramic sunroof allows more light and air into the car which helps to improve overall mood and exposure to natural light while cruising around the town. 
  2. Panoramic sunroofs produce less wind noise within the cabin so your car won't feel any outside air sound. 
  3. Having a car with a panoramic sunroof makes long-distance travel less claustrophobic.

Cons of Panoramic Sunroof

  1. Because of the natural light, the inside feels spacious, and the car with a panoramic sunroof has somewhat less headroom.
  2. Added glass can cause the interior much warmer on the hottest days. 
  3. On winter days, condensation from the window may cause moisture to drip into the cabin. 
  4. The cost is also high compared to a sunroof. 

Best cars with Panoramic Sunroof

  1. Audi A3 Saloon
  2. Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupe
  3. Range Rover
  4. Hyundai Veloster
  5. MINI Cooper Hardtop 2-door
  6. Volkswagen Golf
  7. BMW 3 Series Sports Wagon
  8. Chrysler 300
  9. Lincoln MKZ
  10. Genesis G80 

Sunroof Vs Panoramic roof

Are you confused between a sunroof and a panoramic roof? There are several factors you should consider. You should consider investing in additional tints or blinds for extra protection when the weather gets warm. Also, consider your interior space demands. The main difference between sunroof and panoramic roof is the sunroof is compact and typically installed above the front seats. While the panoramic roof can run almost the full length of the car's roof. Extra light can be one of the biggest benefits of the panoramic roof allows extra light in the car. As a result, the panoramic glass roof can make the interior of the car much more spacious. 

Sunroof Vs Panoramic roof

  1. The price of a panoramic roof car is double compared with a sunroof car. 
  2. The aerodynamic drag is more in panoramic roof cars as compared with sunroof. Thus, the mileage of panoramic cars is lesser than cars with sunroofs. 
  3. Sunroof is typically compact in size whereas a panoramic roof cover full length of the roof. 
  4. The amount of light come inside the cars are more in panoramic roof car as compared with sunroof cars.

Top 7 cars with sunroof and moonroof

Sunroof maximizes natural light inside the car and extra-large overhead openings that extend beyond the first row of seats. Cars with sunroof openings have pros and cons. Sunroof allows light and fresh air inside the car, and they can make the interior feel larger and less claustrophobic. Sunroofs can lower the mileage of a vehicle due to aerodynamic drag and can increase curb weight. Nowadays, cars provide moonroofs too. The sunroof and moonroof both have glass that can control the amount of light that enters the car. But, the sunroof has simple glass and the moonroof has tinted glass. You can check the list of cars that offer sunroofs.

Top 7 cars with sunroof 

  1.  Kia Stinger
  2. Chrysler 300
  3. Volvo V90 Cross Country 
  4. Volkswagen Arteon
  5. Mercedes-Benz EQS
  6. Cadillac CT5-V
  7. Genesis G80

Top 7 cars with moonroof

  1. Polestar 2
  2. Toyota Corolla
  3. Nissan Maxima
  4. Acura ILX
  5. BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe
  6. Jaguar F-type Coupe
  7. Tesla Model 3 

Types of sunroof and moonroof

Cars have come with sunroofs in certain models since 1920, but the design and layout have changed over the years. There are several various kinds of sunroofs, each having advantages that change how a car looks and feels to drive. Nowadays, moonroofs also come with some cars. The roof allows the amount of sunlight into the vehicle is the main difference between sunroof and moonroof. Moonroof has tinted glass while the sunroof has simple glass that can adjust the light coming inside the vehicle. Let us check the different types of sunroof and moonroof to understand more about them. 

Types of sunroof and moonroof 

  1. Pop-up sunroof
  2. Tilt and slide OR Spoiler sunroof
  3. In-built sunroof
  4. Folding sunroof
  5. Top-slider sunroof OR Rail mount
  6. Panoramic sunroof
  7. T-Top sunroof
  8. Solar sunroof
  9. Moonroof type sunroof

Sunroof Vs Moonroof

The terms sunroof and moonroof are used interchangeably but there is a difference between them. The main difference is in the roof of the vehicle allows sunlight into the vehicle. When shopping for a new car, you can check whether to go for a sunroof or a moonroof? You can check out the sunroof vs moonroof in this article below to understand more about it. 

Sunroof Vs Moonroof

  • The primary difference between sunroof and moonroof is the amount of light coming inside the vehicle. 
  • Sunroof is a large panel of glass, while the moonroof is a small tinted glass panel. 
  • Sunroofs are larger than moonroofs in coverage. 
  • Although the moonroof only allowed the entry of light, the sunroof allowed for both light and air.
If you want a full, open-air experience, you go for a sunroof. But, go with the moonroof if tilt functionality and sun protection are more important to you. Now, you are clear in mind that which car you buy. If you have any questions in your mind post them in the comment section below. 

Difference Between Sunroof And Moonroof

The main difference between sunroof and moonroof is the amount of light let inside the car. A sunroof is a large panel of glass, whereas a moonroof is a smaller panel of tinted glass.  You can check out the more difference between the sunroof and moonroof to understand this topic better. 

Difference between sunroof and moonroof 

  • Sunroofs usually cover a large area than moonroofs. Thus, sunroofs can be opened to a greater degree allowing more light into vehicles than moonroofs. 
  • Moonroof does have a tinted glass panel, whereas the sunroof does not. The tinted glass helps to reduce direct sunlight and heat into the vehicle. 
  • Sunroof is an opaque panel of metal that completely blocked out the sun. A sliding internal silver-tinted tempered glass makes up a sunroof that allows the sunshade.
  • The sunroof let in light and air, while the moonroof only allows entering the light. 
  • Sunroofs are mostly manual, whereas moonroofs can be operated manually.
  • Moonroofs are typically larger than sunroofs. 

Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Difference between sunroof and moonroof, please ask us in the comment section below.

Explore related information here

What is grid north?

True north changes throughout time, but magnetic north is stable in one place. Moreover, true north is a fixed place on the Earth whereas magnetic north is the direction in which the compass needle points in. Grid north is a term similar to these two. Map users need to understand these three types of the north. In this article, you can check about the grid north.   

Definition of grid north

The grid north is a navigational phrase used to refer to the northward on a grid line in a map projection. The grid north differentiates the true north and magnetic north in that it is aligned to grid lines and always points upwards on a map. The grid lines from the grid north subdivide the UK into squares one kilometre, east of the Atlantic ocean's imaginary point. The line points towards the grid north and has a slight variation from the true north. Some navigators ignore the difference between grid north and true north because of the slight differences. 

What is magnetic north?

Magnetic north remains constant at a particular location, while true north shifts with time. Moreover, magnetic north is the direction pointed out by the compass needle and true north is a permanent location on the Earth. 

Magnetic north definition

Magnetic north is the direction a magnetic compass would point at the time the map was published. The direction of magnetic north varies over time and with the position on the surface of Earth. Thus, magnetic declination values on the old maps are no longer accurate. 

In other words, the north direction in the magnetic field of Earth is indicated by the north pole of a compass needle. 

What is true north?

True north changes with time, whereas magnetic north, keeps the same at a fixed point. Also, true north is some fixed point on the globe, and magnetic north is the direction the compass needle points out. Let us check the definition and what is the true north below. 

True north definition

True north also called geographic north is the direction of the line of longitude that intersect the quadrangle. All the longitude lines converge to points at the north and south poles. 

In other words, true north, as opposed to magnetic north, is determined by drawing an imaginary line through the Earth.

True North Vs Magnetic North

The main difference between true north and magnetic north is caused by the magnetic field of the earth, which is constantly shifting. True north changes over time, while magnetic north remains the same. Let us have a deep insight into the comparisons and differences between the True north Vs Magnetic north in this article.  

True North Vs Magnetic North 

  • True north is the intersection of the Earth's surface with the axis of rotation. Magnetic north is where Earth's geodynamo determines at that point in time. 
  • True north is a fixed point on the globe. Magnetic north is the direction that the compass needle points to as it aligns with the magnetic field of Earth. 
Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on True North Vs Magnetic North, please ask us in the comment section below.

Explore the more similar information 

Jake Brake vs Exhaust Brake

Jake brake releases compressed air in the cylinders, while the exhaust brake traps the air of an engine within the exhaust. Both are similar but they function differently. Exhaust brakes force the motor to rotate slower and much more quietly than jake brakes.  

Jake brake Vs Exhaust brake

  • Exhaust brake causes engine braking by raising pressure, whereas Jake brake causes engine braking by decreasing pressure.
  • An exhaust brake connects to the exhaust system, whereas a Jake brake connects to the valve train.
  • The jake brake has significantly higher breaking power than the exhaust brake.
  • Jake brake is noisier than the exhaust brake.
  • Jake brake is more expensive than exhaust brake. 
  • The efficiency of the exhaust brake is less compared to the jake brake. 
  • Jake brakes are more effective than jake brakes for slowing down the car. 


An exhaust brake slows the engine by increasing pressure, whereas a Jake brake slows the engine by lowering pressure. An exhaust brake links to the exhaust system, whereas a Jake brake connects to the valve train. A Jake brake offers far more braking power than an exhaust brake.

A Jake brake is noisier than an exhaust brake. Both brakes are required for large vehicles, but they serve unique duties. If you're in the market for a new car or need service on your current one, consult with a professional to determine which type of brake is best for your needs.

Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Jake brake Vs Exhaust brake, please ask us in the comment section below.

Explore more information: 

Difference between muffler and exhaust

The muffler controls the noise level and the exhaust controls the gas output. Also, another word for the muffler is a silencer. We can say that the muffler is part of the exhaust system. Let us check out the more difference between mufflers and exhaust here in this article below. 

Difference between muffler and exhaust

  • The exhaust manifold collects the gas and directs it to the pipe, whereas the piping from the exhaust system directs the gas into the muffler. 
  • The exhaust leads out of the engine and into catalytic converters which break down the toxic gases into less harmful compounds. The muffler suppresses the noise through chambers, partitions and tubes. The muffler can act as a cushion to absorb the noise to reduce high-pitched frequencies. 
  • The piping directs this environmental-friendly exhaust gas into the muffler, while the gases are released into the atmosphere through the tail pipe. 
Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Difference between muffler and exhaust, please ask us in the comment section below.

Explore more information: 

Difference between open loop and closed loop control system

The main difference between an open-loop system and a closed-loop system is that the closed-loop system can self-correct, whereas the open-loop system cannot. As a result, closed-loop systems are often referred to as feedback control systems, whereas open-loop systems are referred to as non-feedback controls. Let us check the difference between open-loop and closed-loop control system in this article. 

Open loop control system Vs Closed loop control system


Open Loop Control System: There is no feedback path is provided. 
Closed Loop Control System: There is a feedback path present. 

Also Called as

Open Loop Control System: Non-feedback control system
Closed Loop Control System: Feedback control system

Control Action

Open Loop Control System: The control action is independent of the overall system output. 
Closed Loop Control System: The control action is dependent on the system output.

Design Complexity

Open Loop Control System: The design and construction are quite simple. 
Closed Loop Control System: The design and construction are comparatively complex. 

Main Components

Open Loop Control System: Controller and plant.
Closed Loop Control System: Controller, plant or process, feedback element and error detector. 


Open Loop Control System: It has a fast response because there is no measurement and feedback of output. 
Closed Loop Control System: It has a slow response due to the presence of feedback. 


Open Loop Control System: Less reliable.
Closed Loop Control System: More reliable.


Open Loop Control System: The accuracy depends on the system calibration. Thus, accuracy may be less. 
Closed Loop Control System: This system is accurate because feedback maintains its accuracy. 


Open Loop Control System: More stable.
Closed Loop Control System: Less stable.


Open Loop Control System: Not optimized.
Closed Loop Control System: Optimized to produce a desired output.


Open Loop Control System: Less maintenance.
Closed Loop Control System: More maintenance.


Open Loop Control System: Easy to implement.
Closed Loop Control System: Relatively difficult to implement.


Open Loop Control System: Cost is low.
Closed Loop Control System: Cost is relatively high.

Internal noise

Open Loop Control System: More internal noise. 
Closed Loop Control System: Less internal noise. 

Examples of open loop control systems: Automatic traffic light systems, Immersion heaters, Automatic washing machine

Examples of closed-loop control systems: ACs, Fridge, Toaster, Radar tracking system

Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Difference between open loop and closed loop control system, please ask us in the comment section below.

Difference between hardwood and softwood

The important difference between hardwood and softwood is that hardwood trees are typically slower growers and are considered angiosperm, which leads to denser wood. Software trees are gymnosperms, meaning they are evergreen trees. You can check out the difference between hardwood and softwood in detail below. 

Difference between hardwood and softwood


Hardwood: They are slower growers and considered angiosperm trees. 

Softwood: They are faster growers and are considered gymnosperm trees. 


Hardwood: They are durable, high quality and offer a long-lasting option for multiple purposes. 

Softwood: They are weaker and less durable than hardwood. 


Hardwood: Used for flooring, cladding, panelling, buildings, fencing, boats and outdoor decks. 

Softwood: Used for feature walls, ceilings, furniture, doors and windows.


Hardwood: Balsa, Eucalyptus, Mahogany, Blackbutt, Red Ironbark and Spotted Gum

Softwood: Douglas fir, Juniper, Yew, Cedar, Pine and Hemlock 


Hardwood: Hardwood are not as renewable as softwood due to its long-lasting nature. It can be a well-considered choice for its durability. 

Softwood: Softwood grow much faster than hardwood. They are considered a very renewable source. 


Hardwood: This timber is available in various colours, and finishes, and suits almost a contemporary style setting. 

Softwood: The versatile nature of this timber offers a stunning, seamless finish. It is quite workable, making a variety of uses possible.


Hardwood: This timber is durable, and easy to clean, while scratches and dents can be fixed with ease. 

Softwood: Due to being less durable. this timber requires more regular maintenance to ensure its longevity. 


Hardwood: They are generally more expensive due to their slow growth rate and durable properties. But good for long-run and low maintenance. 

Softwood: They are cheaper than hardwood, as they are faster growers and easier to source.

Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Difference between hardwood and softwood, please ask us in the comment section below.

Challenges for the EV Infrastructure Industry

Electric vehicles (EVs) have gained considerable momentum in recent years as a viable alternative to traditional fossil fuel-powered cars. An EV is a vehicle which is powered by an electric motor that gets electricity from a battery and is capable of being charged from an external source.

However, the adoption of electric vehicles is not without its challenges. One of the most significant obstacles to the widespread adoption of electric vehicles is the lack of sufficient EV infrastructure.

In this article, we will discuss some of the challenges facing the development of EV infrastructure. 

Limited charging infrastructure: One of the biggest challenges facing the growth of the electric vehicle market is the limited charging infrastructure. EVs require frequent charging, and without a reliable network of charging stations, EV owners may face difficulty finding places to charge their vehicles. While some companies have installed charging stations in public places like shopping malls, parking lots, and gas stations, the overall number of charging stations is still relatively low compared to the number of gas stations. To encourage EV adoption, governments need to invest in the development of a robust charging infrastructure.

High cost of charging stations: Another significant challenge facing the development of EV infrastructure is the high cost of installing charging stations. Building a charging station requires significant investment, and the high cost of installation is a significant deterrent for businesses and individuals looking to invest in EV infrastructure. However, as more companies and individuals realize the benefits of owning and driving electric vehicles, the demand for charging stations will increase, and the costs associated with installing them will likely decrease.

Range anxiety: It is a term used to describe the fear of running out of power while driving an electric vehicle. Unlike traditional gasoline-powered cars, EVs have limited driving ranges, and if the battery runs out, the driver may be stranded until they can find a charging station. This fear can be a significant barrier to adoption for some consumers, who are used to the convenience of being able to refuel their cars at any gas station. However, advances in battery technology have led to longer ranges for electric vehicles, and this is gradually reducing the impact of range anxiety on potential EV buyers.

Lack of standardization: Another challenge facing the development of EV infrastructure is the lack of standardization in charging technology. There are currently multiple types of charging stations available, and different vehicles require different types of charging connections. This lack of standardization can create confusion and inconvenience for EV owners, who may struggle to find the right charging station for their vehicles. However, efforts are underway to develop a standardized charging system that will make it easier for EV owners to charge their vehicles regardless of the make and model.

Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Market

As per RationalStat’s market study, India electric vehicle infrastructure market, is expected to experience a robust growth rate of 30% between 2019 and 2028. The infrastructure to charge an electric vehicle is crucial for India's growth. India's Government has set a goal to make 70% of all commercial vehicles, 30% of private cars and 40% of buses and 80% of two-wheelers changes to EV by 2030. To achieve this goal, India must have enough charging stations.

The EV market is growing because of rising concerns about urban air pollution. Conventional fuel vehicles are a major cause of air pollution. This forces governments to impose strict regulations on car manufacturers to limit vehicle emissions. EVs are able to reduce dependence on oil-based fuels, and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government of many countries are also involved in driving the EVs’ sales by providing subsidies for customers.

Future Growth of Electric Vehicles

The Federation also requested FAME-II of the Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry to continue until 2025 to increase the EV demand. The scheme cost US$ 1.3 billion to finance the incentivized EV purchase and help India's charging infrastructure. In 2018, the National E-Mobility Program, which was designed to promote hybrid and electric vehicles in India, was launched. It aimed at achieving national fuel security. The program aims to reach 30% of all-electric vehicles by 2030. This will be a major boost to market growth in the future.

Bottom Line

The development of EV infrastructure is crucial for the growth and adoption of electric vehicles. The challenges facing the development of EV infrastructure include limited charging infrastructure, high costs of charging stations, range anxiety, and lack of standardization. However, with the right investment and collaboration between the public and private sectors, these challenges can be overcome, and electric vehicles can become a viable alternative to traditional gasoline-powered cars.

Difference between elastic and inelastic collisions

An elastic collision is a state where there is no net loss in kinetic energy in the system as a result of the collision. An inelastic collision is a state where there is a loss of kinetic energy as a result of the collision. In an inelastic collision, the loss of kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy, sound energy, and material deformation. You can check out the difference between elastic and inelastic collision in this article below. 

Difference between elastic and inelastic collisions

  • The total kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions. The total kinetic energy of bodies at the beginning of the collision is different in inelastic collisions. 
  • The momentum does not change in elastic collisions as well as inelastic collisions. 
  • No conversion of energy takes place in elastic collisions. The kinetic energy is changed into other energy such as sound or heat energy in case of inelastic collisions. 
  • An elastic collision is highly unlikely in the real world as there is almost always a change in energy. An inelastic collision is a normal form of collision in the real world.  
  • The particles in a perfectly inelastic collision stick together after the collision, whereas the particles in an inelastic collision do not stick together and move individually.
  • Examples of elastic collisions: Swinging balls OR Spacecraft flying near a planet but not affected by its gravity. Examples of inelastic collisions: Collisions of two cars OR A bat striking a baseball.

Thanks for reading the article. Still, if you have any questions or queries on the Difference between elastic and inelastic collisions, please ask us in the comment section below.