Pros and cons of wind energy

Wind energy as green energy is one of the simplest forms of renewable energy. It is one of the fastest-growing sources of electricity. However, there are many environmental impacts of using wind energy, also there are some cons also. So, let us check out the pros and cons of Wind energy here in this article to better understand about it. 

Pros OR Advantages of Wind energy: 

  1. Wind energy is one of the clean and renewable source of energy. 
  2. To generate wind energy, operating costs are relatively low. 
  3. Optimim use of land space, because land can be used for that can also be used for other purposes such as farming. 
  4. Developing and investing in wind technology that can only run on a finite resource that we may run on of our lifetime, but energy generated from fossil fuels not only contributes to climate change but also one day run out of it. 
  5. Wind energy is one of the largest source of renewable energy in the United States. Over the last 10 years, the United States increased wind energy capacity by 15% per year. 
  6. Wind energy is sustainable. 
  7. According to Wind Vision Report, the United States provide more than 100,000 employment in the wind turbine technician. 
  8. Wind energy can produce very few green house gas emission such as SO2 and NO2. 
  9. Low amount of waste.
  10. It is one of the source of tax income for local municipalities.
  11. Wind energy conserve and keep the water. 
  12. The market potential of wind energy is high. 

Cons OR Disadvantages of Wind enegy: 

  1. Wind energy is weather dependent. 
  2. It is not suitable for some geographical locations. 
  3. Wind energy production plant create some amount of noice and aesthetic pollution. 
  4. The initial construction of wind energy plant is high. 
  5. The maintainance cost of the wind plant is significant. 
  6. Windmills used in wind energy production plant may be vulnarable to natural disaster. 
  7. The construction of windmills may take a long time. 
  8. It is dangerous and cause issue to some wildlife as well as the surrounding environment. 
  9. Swings and shortages in wind energy supply. 
  10. Sometime birds may be killed by wind turbines. 
Thank you for reading this article. If you have any queries regarding this article on the pros and cons of Wind energy then feel free to do comment and give suggestion in the comment section below. 

Milling machine use

What is a milling machine used for?

The milling machine is the machine used by the manufacturing industry that uses a multipoint cutting tool for removing a layer of material in form of grooves from the surface of the workpiece. 

The milling machine is generally used for the design of metal and some other materials. The milling machine not only mill vertically downward and create a hole but also installed in the side of the tool and used for shaping the edges. 

Tasks performed on milling machine:

With the use of a milling machine, many tasks can be performed such as drilling, cutting, planning, keyway and slot cutting, engraving, routing, rebating etc. If you really want a machine that can fulfil every demand of you, especially when it comes to metal, then the milling machine should be the perfect solution for you.  


We can use one or more cutters that can be mounted simultaneously on the arbour of the milling machine. Also, in many application, the milling machine has even replaced shaper machine and slotter machine due to higher accuracy and production rate. 

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MAP full form

 What is the full form of MAP?


  • Manifold Absolute Pressure

What does MAP mean?

MAP is a sensor that is used by the powertrain control module for engine load input. The PCM uses this input. It is also calculated the correct amount of fuel to inject into the cylinders. The MAP sensor tests the absolute pressure inside the engine's intake manifold.

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  1. RPM full form
  2. BCD full form
  3. PRV full form 

BCD full form

 What is the full form of BCD?


  • Bolt Circle Diameter

What does BCD mean?

The diameter of the circle that passes through the middle of all of your chainring's bolts is known as BCD. This dimension is generally measured in millimetres on bicycle chainrings. When choosing a new chainring for your bike, knowing the BCD of your crankset is important.

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Difference between Open-Die and Closed-Die Forging

What is Closed die forging?

The closed die forging is a metal forming process that compresses a piece of metal under high pressure to fill an enclosed die impression. For some special shapes, the second forging operation is required to reach the final shapes and dimensions.

What is Open die forging?

Open die forging is the process of striking a hammer to deform a piece of metal, typically placed on a stationary anvil. Another approach is to use compression to press the metal between the simple dies.

Difference between the open die and closed die forging:

  • Open die forging is the workpiece is compressed between the two flat dies, while the closed die forging the workpiece is compressed between the two impressed dies.
  • Open die forging the cost of dies is low, while the closed die forging the cost of dies is high.
  • The process is simple in Open die forging, while the closed die forging process is complex.
  • Open die forging machining of components is required, while the closed die forging, machining of the component are not required.
  • Open die forging there is poor utilization of the material, while the closed die forging there is a better utilization of the materials.
  • Open dies forging the dimensional accuracy of the obtained products is not good, while the closed die forging the dimensional accuracy of the obtained products is good.
  • Open die forging is used for low-quality production, while closed die forging is used for high-quality production.
  • Open die forging is suitable only for the production of the simple type of components, while closed die forging is suitable for the production of simple and complex components.

Difference Between Single Point and Multi Point Cutting Tool

The main key comparison between the single and multi-point cutting tool is the single point cutting tool contains only one main cutting edge while the multipoint cutting tool contains more than one cutting edge. So here this article gives the main key difference between single point and multi-point cutting tools to better understand this topic.

Difference between single point and multipoint cutting tool:

  • Single-point cutting tools contain only one main cutting edge in the cutter body, while multi-point cutting tools contain more than one edge in the cutter body.
  • Single point cutting tools is only one main cutting edge that continuously remains in contact with the workpiece, while the Multipoint cutting tool more than one cutting edge simultaneously engages in materials removal action in a pass.
  • Single-point cutting tools are a chip load per tooth is usually high, while due to the presence of multiple cutting edges, effective chip load per tooth reduces.
  • Design and fabrication of single-point cutting tools are easier, while the  Design and fabrication of multi-point cutting tools are quite difficult.
  • Single-point cutting tools  example of turning tool, shopping tool, planning tool, slotting tool, boring tool, fly milling cutter, etc while the multi-point cutting tool example of milling cutter, hobs, broach, grinding wheels, reamer, knurling tools, etc
  • Single-point cutting tools can be made from grinding machines, while the multipoint cutting tool can not manufacture from only grinder machines. 
  • Single-point cutting tools the wear rate is high, while the tool wear rate is low in multi-point cutting tools.
  • Single-point cutting tools have a low material removal rate, while the multi-point cutting tools good or more material removal compared a Single-point cutting tools.
  • The tool life of Single-point cutting tools is shorter comparatively multi-point cutting tools. 
  • In term of accuracy, this is one provides a good surface finish in the single-point cutting tool, while the multi-point cutting tool provide grater surface finish.

RPM full form

 What is the full form of RPM?


  • Revolutions Per Minute

What does RPM mean?

The number of revolutions per minute, or RPM, is a measurement of the frequency of rotation. It shows how many times in one minute a mechanical component rotates around its axis. RPM refers to the rotational speed of mechanical parts such as an engine's crankshaft, a power generator turbine, a CD or DVD player, and a turbocharger.

Difference Between Machining and Grinding

In both the machining and grinding processes, the material removal takes place in the form of solid chips. In both cases, the material is removed by shearing. So here this article gives the difference between machining and Grinding to better understand this topic.

Difference between machining and Grinding:

  • Machining is primarily a bulk removal process. It can also semi-finish the surfaces. While the grinding is primarily a surface finishing process. It gives a low MRR.
  • Machining is dimensional accuracy and tolerance achieved by these processes is not very good. While the Grinding offers better dimensional accuracy and close tolerance
  • Each and every cutting edge of the cutter equally participates in cutting action during machining. It is value. While the Grinding only a few among all of the abrasives available at the periphery of the wheel participate in cutting action
  • Machining shearing occurs during the process, while the Grinding operation is associated with rubbing, scratching, ploughing, and also shearing
  • Machining is the clearance angle of the cutter cannot be zero or negative. Its value usually varies from +15°C to -15°C while the Grinding abrasives have abrupt rake angles that can vary from +60°C to -60°C, even beyond that.
  • The machining clearance angle of the cutter is zero or negative. Its value usually varies from +3°C to 15°C, while the Grinding abrasives have abrupt clearance angles also. It can be zero or negative also.
  • In Machining every employs a cutting tool for removing material. This cutting tool is commonly made of metal, while the Grinding employs a wheel for removing materials, The wheel is made of tiny sharp abrasives bonded in other mediums
  • Machining is a specific energy consumption is comparatively low, while the Grinding is due to high loss of energy because of rubbing, scratching, and the specific energy consumption is very high.
  • Machining are hardened material and inherently very brittle and tough materials cannot be smoothy machined by these processes, while the Grinding is hardness, ductility, and toughness of work materials usually posses no problem.

Difference Between Turning and Milling

Turning rotates the workpiece against a cutting tool. It uses primarily round bar stock for machining components while the milling spins the cutting tool against a stationary workpiece. It uses primarily square or it is rectangular bar stock to produce components. So here this article gives the difference between turning and milling to better understand this topic.

What is Milling?

Milling is a machining process in which a machine, normally a milling machine, uses a rotating cutting tool to extract material from a stationary workpiece.

What is Turning?

Turning is a machining process in which a machine, normally a lathe, uses a cutting tool to extract materials from a rotating workpiece. When you turn the workpiece, the cutting tool stays stationary as the workpiece shifts.

Difference between turning and Milling:

  • Turning is performed to generate a cylindrical or there is conical surface, while milling is performed to generate a flat surface.
  • The turning of the workpiece is rotated at fixed revolution per minute(RPM). This rotation provides the necessary cutting velocity, while the Milling is the cutter is rotated at fixed revolution per minute(RPM). The rotating cutter provides the necessary cutting velocity.
  • The turning machine tool is used for turning operation is called lathe, while the milling is carried out in the milling machine.
  • In turn, the cutting tool continuously remains in contact with the workpiece during the operation, while the milling tooth continuously engages and disengages during the operation.
  • The turning process utilizes a single-point cutting tool, called SPTT, while the Milling process utilizes a multipoint cutting tool, called a milling cutter.
  • In turning feed motion is derived by moving the cutting tool, while the milling, feed motion is derived by moving the workpiece.
  • Turning can produce fragmented, discontinuous, or continuous chips while milling inherently produces discontinuous chips.
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Difference between Jig and Fixture

The main comparison between jig and fixture is that jig is the type of tool used to control the location or motion of another tool, While the fixture is supported or they are work holding device used to hold work in place. In metal and woodworking, both jigs and fixtures are essential tools used. So here this article gives the difference between jig and fixture to better understand this topic.

What is Jig?

The jig is a work-holding system that holds supports and directs the cutting tool for a particular operation. The jig is made of metal, and it locates and keeps the workpiece in a secure manner, as well as directs the cutting tool so that it is in the proper relationship to the work when the machining process begins.

What is a Fixture?

A fixture is a work-holding or support device which is used in the manufacturing industry. Fixtures are used to locate and facilitate work in a safe manner, ensuring that all parts manufactured using the fixture are consistent and interchangeable. Using a fixture increases production efficiency by allowing for smooth operation and rapid transitions from one part to the next, lowering the need for skilled labor by simplifying how workpieces are assembled, and increasing conformity across a variety of parts.

Difference between Jig and fixture:

  • The jig guides the cutting tools, while the fixture does not guide the cutting tool.
  • The jig is mostly attached to the machine table, while the fixture is always attached to the machine table.
  • Jig feet are used in its construction, while the fixture is construction such feet are not used.
  • The jig is generally light in weight than the fixture, while the fixture is generally heavier than the jig.
  • Bushes are used in a jig for guiding the cutting tool, while the brushes are not used in fixtures.
  • The jig is used unidimensional machining, while the fixture is used in multidimensional machining
  • The jig is widely used on drilling machines, while the fixture is widely milling, grinding machines.
  • The jig is specially used for drilling, reaming and boring operations, while the fixture is specially used for milling, turning grinding operations.
  • Jig cost is more, while the fixture cost is less as compared with the jig.
  • Jig designing is complex, while fixture designing is less complex.
  • The jig is considered easy to use and thus less skilled is required to operate this device, while the fixture is somewhat complicated to use and thus requires skill. 

Difference Between Active and Passive Solar Heating

Solar energy is nonpolluting and renewable. There are different kinds of technologies that can harness solar radiation and convert it into solar energy. the building can employ either active or passive solar heating. So here this article gives the difference between active and passive solar heating to better understand this topic. 

What is Active solar heating?

Using active solar heating air, water or creating electricity with photovoltaic panels. The panels should sit on your roof or on a sunny wall where they can collect heat and generate electricity to run a heat pump or power the blower fan of a gas furnace.

What is Passive Solar Heating?

Passive heating is to use materials with a high thermal mass. While the sunshine can warm the air in your home, the air itself has a low thermal mass. Some materials that can better capture heat include masonry products like ceramic tiles, stone brick, and concrete. 

Difference between Active and passive solar heating:

  • Passive solar heating is a system that operates without pumps, blowers, or other mechanical devices, while active heating pumps, blowers, or other mechanical devices require circulating the working fluid for the transportation of heat.
  • Passive solar heating is a special building design that is necessary, while active solar heating is a special building design that is not necessary.
  • Passive solar heating is less expensive than an active system to construct and operate, while active solar heating is more expensive than the passive system to construct and operate.
  • Active solar heating can be employed at almost any location and type of building, while Passive solar heating is suitable where there is ample winter sunshine and an unobstructed southern exposure is possible.
  • Passive solar heating is a system of solar radiation is collected by an element of the structure itself. The various elements of the building like walls, roof, windows, partitions etc are selected and so architecturally integrated that they participate in the collection, storage, and transportation, and distribution of thermal energy, while Active solar heating is the solar radiation is collected using some kind of separate collectors. Solar energy may be stored in sensible heat storage materials  or in latent heat storage materials and the energy is redistributed in the building space using pumps, fans, blowers, etc

Difference Between Straight Bevel Gear and Spiral Bevel Gear

Gear drive is one of the parts and parcels of a mechanical power transmission system that transmits power and motion by successive engagement and disengagement of teeth driver and driven gear. so here this article gives the difference between straight bevel gear and spiral bevel gear to better understand this topic.

Difference between straight bevel gear and spiral bevel gear:

  • A straight bevel gear is a teeth of this type of gear are straight and are cut along the axis on a cone, while the spiral bevel gear is the teeth are spiral and are cut in the form of the spiral curve on the pitch cone.
  • Straight bevel gear sudden contact also causes noise, while the spiral bevel gear operation is quiet.
  • The straight bevel gear has two teeth of the mating gears come in sudden contact. The contact is always a line of length equal to the face width of teeth, while the spiral bevel gear has teeth of two mating gears gradually come in contact. Engagement starts with a point and gradually becomes a line.
  • In straight bevel gear, shock loading induces a vibration and thus its operation is not smooth, but the spiral bevel gear gradually building up of load, It produces fewer vibrations and thus the operation is smooth.
  • In the straight bevel gear, due to sudden contact, teeth are also subjected to impact or shock loading, while in the spiral bevel gear the teeth are subjected to gradual loading.
  • A straight bevel gear is exerted less thrust force on the bearing that holds the shafts, while the spiral bevel gear is exerted more thrust force on bearings.
  • A straight bevel gear is designing and manufacturing of straight teeth bevel gear easier and thus these are cheaper, while the spiral bevel gear, are complicated design and manufacturing leads to higher cost for this type of gear.
  • The life of the straight bevel gear is shorter as it subjected to impact loading and vibrations, while the spiral bevel gear has a longer life.

Difference between diathermic and adiabatic process

The diathermic ad adiabatic process is generally used in thermodynamics for explaining the surrounding. Therefore here this article gives the main key difference between the diathermic ad adiabatic processes to better understand this topic.

The adiathermic process is one In which heat can go in or out of the system. The adiabatic system is one in which heat cannot go in or out of the system

Difference between diathermic and adiabatic process:

  • Diathermic substances are those substances that allow heat to pass through them and the process is called a diathermic process.  Adiabatic substances are those substances that do not allow heat to pass through them ad the process is called an adiabatic process. 
  • Any, good conductor of heat is an example of a diathermic substance. For example, copper, silver ad steel, etc. While in the adiabatic process any insulator, glass, wool, asbestos, cork, etc. 

Difference Between Cutting Speed and Cutting Velocity

Both cutting and speed velocity are interrelated and one is proportional to another. One can easily be converted to another, provided that the diameter of either cutter or workpiece is known. The following difference between cutting speed and cutting velocity to better understand this topic.

What is Cutting Speed?

Cutting speed is the rotational speed of either workpiece or there is some cutting tool. It is measured by the unit revolution per minute and designed by N. For example, cutting speed turning is 295rpm.

What is cutting Velocity?

Cutting Velocity is the tangential velocity of either the rotating workpiece or the rotating cutting tool. It is measured by the unit meter per minute and designed by velocity. Any rotating object or some part has a tangential velocity at any point on its body except the axis of rotation. 

Difference between cutting speed and cutting velocity:

  • Cutting speed indicates the rotational speed of either workpiece or cutting tool, while the cutting velocity indicates the tangential velocity of either the rotating workpiece or rotating cutting tool.
  • Cutting speed is commonly expressed in revolution per minute, while the cutting velocity is commonly expressed in meters per minute.
  • Cutting speed is a scalar quantity, while the cutting velocity is one vector quantity.
  • Cutting speed is usually not considered as a machining process parameter, while the cutting velocity is considered as one crucial machining process parameter.
  • Cutting speed is only associated with that machining operation where either workpiece or cutting tool rotates, while the cutting velocity is associated with all conventional machining operations irrespective of presence or absence of rotation of workpiece or cutting tool.
  • Cutting speed is mainly useful when operating machines, while cutting velocity is useful in a number of analyses, including the measurement of cutting power, temperature, vibrations, and machining economy, among others.
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Difference Between Dry Machining and Wet Machining

Machining is one secondary manufacturing process that is performed to impart the desired shape, size, and surface finish by removing material from a solid 3D blank. Here this article gives the difference between machining and wet machining to better understand this topic.

Difference between dry machining and wet machining:

  • Dry machining is performed in absence of appropriate cutting fluid, while wet machining is performed in presence of appropriate cutting fluid.
  • Dry machining fluid delivery system is required, while the wet machining proper fluid delivery system must be installed with the machine tool for controlled delivery of cutting fluid.
  • In Dry machining due to excessive cutting heat, chip color changes undesirably, while the wet machining chip color usually remains the same as that of work materials.
  • While using dry machining workpieces and cutting tools are subjected to other thermal damages also, while the wet machining reduces the tendency of thermal damages of workpiece and cutter.
  • Dry machining can be carried out while cutting soft materials like wood, polymer, soft metals, Wet machining is preferred which cutting hard metals like steel, titanium, etc.
  • Dry machining cutting temperature remains very high during machining, whole the wet machining cutting the temperature remains significantly low because of reduced rate of heat generation ad continuous removal of heat by cutting fluid.
  • Dry machining is less hazardous to the worker. No such environmental pollution is associated with dry cutting, while the prolonged exposure to cutting fluid sometimes turns to the operator. It is disposal contaminates the environment.
  • Dry machining is a rate of heat generation machining is considerably more, while the wet machining for same parameters and materials, rate of heat generation is low due to lubricating effect of cutting fluid.
  • Dry machining is high cutting temperature accelerates the tool wear rate and this reduces tool of life. It also tends to deform the cutting edges plastically, while the wet machining for the same work tool material combination and process, a tool under wet machining exhibits prolonged life due to degraded wear rate. 
  • Dry machining problem associated with corrosion of machine tools is not prevalent here owing to the absence of cutting fluid, while the wet machining of some cutting fluids corrodes various machine parts rapidly. Thus longevity of machine tools degrades.

Advantages and disadvantages of self driving cars

Self-driving cars are going to make everything worse. Their perfect driving, as well as relentless, will decrease traffic fatalities by 90%. Self-driving cars will make our way to work stress is free. So here this article gives the advantages and disadvantages of a self-driving car to better understand this topic.

Advantages of self-driving cars:

  • Potential for more powerful vehicles.
  • The self-driving car is usually focused on electric vehicles rather than hybrid or gasoline cars. Using electric cars will decrease the emissions that are released into the atmosphere.
  • This will eliminate all accidents caused by humans, making roads a safer place.
  • Self-driving cars could be safe and it is a totally reliable mode of transportation. Those with a disability or the elderly would be able to get into the self-driving car without putting others at risk.
  • The self-driving car is their ability to communicate with each other. With this ability to communicate in real-time devices, cars would be able to safely travel efficiently at optimized distances from each other. 

Disadvantages of self-driving cars:

  • If the car without a driver crash, who will be guilty? who should compensate for the damage?
  • Many trucks, as well as some taxi drivers and some other drivers, will become jobless, as autonomous vehicles take over.
  • Driverless cars would function using your place as user information by creating major privacy issues problems.
  • A self-driving car would probably cost more than $100,000. Many ordinary people cannot afford to buy such kinds of cars.
  • Self-driving vehicles are leading by computer devices. Even a minor computer malfunction, may crash than occurring because of human error.
  • The road system should be changed in order to be adjusted to new driverless vehicle systems. 
  • Terrorists will use self-driving cars to load them with explosives and as moving bombs.
  • Since drivers become used not to driving their experience and their proficiency will maybe reduce. And if they will need to drive under certain conditions, there are certainly many problems that may arise.
  • The other disadvantage of the driverless car is the factor of hackers. Hackers may get into the car software and affect or control its operation and create some problems. 
  • Heavy rain interferes with rood-mounted laser sensors. Its turn snow interferes with its cameras. There is really challenging for a robot to read for human road signs.
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ONGC full form

What is the full form of ONGC?


  • Oil And Natural Gas Corporation

What does ONGC mean?

The ONGC is an Indian crude oil and gas multinational corporation and its head office located in New Delhi, India. The ONGC is a public sector project which is under the administrative control of the government of India's ministry of petroleum and natural gas. In the year of 1994, ONGC was reconfigured as a limited enterprise under the company act, 1956.

SFI full frorm

 What is the full form of SFI?


  • Sequential Fuel Injection

What does SFI mean?

SFI is a type of multipoint fuel injection system in which each injection valve will open just before the cylinder intake valve opens. The individual injections work by themselves because they are fired individually. Other multi-port systems will fire all the injectors in a group no matter if the cylinder is ready or not. But the SFI has many advantages, direct injection is quickly becoming the system of choice and it is replacing the SEFI systems.

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  2. Full form of PRV
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  7. Full form of GDI

BCP full form

 What is the full form of BCP?


  • Boiler Circulating Pumps

What does BCP mean?

A boiler circulating pump (BCP) circulates water inside the boiler to boost boiler efficiency. The suction from a header connected to multiple downcomers at the bottom of the boiler drum, then discharges through additional tube circuits. This implies that the water being pumped is at the same temperature and pressure as a boiler.

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  1. Full form of PFI

PRV valve full form

 What is the full form of PRV?


  • Pressure Reducing Valve

What does PRV mean?

Under such situations, a PRV valve may be used to defend against water hammer. Water hammer events are so quick that relieving pressure with this approach necessitates the use of very specific rapid response valves equipped for the specific systems. Where another form, such as an air vessel, is in use as the primary safety system, PRV may be used as an added precaution.